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Giving C.P.R. to an infant

Tips to know

Water Safety

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

How to Treat a Nosebleed

When your baby starts to climb

Tips for Selecting a Child Caregiver



Giving C.P.R. to an infant
How to Do Infant CPR
By Rod Brouhard, edited by Dimitrio Alonzo

There is no substitute for proper training. However, emergencies wait for no one. Use these steps to provide CPR to babies under 1 year old.

1). Stay Safe
Children may be infected with contagious diseases. If you are concerned about possible exposure to contagious disease, practice universal precautions and wear personal protective equipment, if available.

2). Try to wake the infant:
Really little babies respond well to having the soles of their feet rubbed or tapped. For infants more than 2 months old, tap their shoulder or chest. In either case, call out his name in a loud voice. Don't hurt the baby but be aggressive; you're trying to wake him up. If the infant does not wake up, have someone call 911 immediately. If no one else is available to call 911, if you have a cell phone or cordless close to you (do not go looking for it) use it. (speaker function is great as you can perform instructions the operator gives you hands free). If a phone is not on hand, continue to step 3 and do CPR for about 2 minutes before calling 911.

3). Open the airway and check for breathing
Put the baby on a flat, hard surface like a table or the floor. Tilt the infant’s head back a little to open the airway. Put an ear to the baby's mouth and listen for breathing sounds. While listening, watch the chest to see if it's rising and falling. If you don't see or hear any signs of breathing, go to step 4 immediately. If the baby is breathing, then call 911 immediately if no one else has already done it. If the baby vomits, turn him to the side to keep him from choking on the vomit. If the baby stops breathing, go to step 4.

4).Give the baby two breaths.
If the baby is not breathing, give him two breaths. Cover the baby's entire mouth and nose with your mouth and gently blow. Let the air escape -- the chest will go back down -- and give one more breath.
If no air goes in when you try to blow, adjust the baby's head and try again. If that doesn't work, then go to step 5.

Note = Please remember that a baby's lungs are extremely tiny and very easily damaged. You dont want to really give full on breaths, overextending a baby's lungs can be deadly. When delivering the breaths to an infant you dont blow from your lungs, simply fill your cheek of your mouth with air and puff that tiny amount into the baby's mouth and nose.

5). Begin chest compressions:
Put two fingers on the breastbone directly between the baby's nipples. Push straight down about an inch and then let the chest all the way back up. Do that 30 times, about twice per second. After 30 pushes on the chest, give the baby two more rescue breaths (as described in step 4). Keep going -- 30 chest compressions followed by 2 breaths -- for about two minutes. If you still haven't called 911 yet, do it now. Keep doing 30 chest compressions followed by 2 breaths until the baby starts breathing on his own, or until help arrives.

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When checking for breathing, if you're not sure then assume the baby isn't breathing. It's much worse to assume a baby is breathing and not do anything than to assume he or she isn't and start rescue breaths.

When giving rescue breaths, using a CPR mask helps with making a proper seal and keeps vomit out of the rescuer's mouth.

Put a book under the baby's shoulders -- if you have time -- to help keep his head tilted back.

When you ask someone else to call 911 for you, make sure you tell them why they are calling. If not, they may not tell the 911 dispatcher exactly what's going on. If the dispatcher knows the baby isn't breathing or responding, the dispatcher may be able to give you instructions to help.

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Tips to know

*NEVER shake or toss your baby. Your baby’s brain is very fragile. This could cause permanent brain damage.

* Never leave your baby unattended on a changing table or other elevated surface, including and adult’s bed. Even a newborn can waffle and squirm and could fall before you know it.

* The temperature of baby bath should be lukewarm, not hot or cold. Turn down your temperature of your hot water to a safe 120 degrees F. or 44 degrees C. before putting your baby in the water, check it and be sure it does not feel hot. Never leave your baby unattended in the bath for even a moment to answer the phone.

* Keep baby protected from pets who may be jealous of, or curious about, this new member of your family. Provide close supervision if your baby is on the floor, when your pet is in the area.

* Always use a car seat when traveling with a baby. The safest place for the baby is strapped in the car seat in the middle of the back seat of the car. Never place your car seat in the front seat of a vehicle.

* Be sure the infant care seat you have selected meets the safety standard fro your baby’s weight and that is has been installed properly. Your local police department can give you information about, and even show you how to properly install and use your car seat.

*it is recommended that infants weighting less than 6 pound be examined to determine if they can safely ride in an upright infant car seat. Most hospitals loan flat car carriers for infants under 6 pounds who are not able to breath properly when in an upright car seat.

* Shorten the cords of all window blinds and curtains so that your baby cannot reach them.

* Prepare now by putting childproof covers on electrical outlets and latches on cabinets and drawers.

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Drowning is the leading cause of death in children under 4 years. According to a study done by the, National Safe Kids Council, 88 % of drowning accidents happen while the child is under supervision. Don’t let your self get distracted, or answer the phone and follow the list below. It only takes a second for a young one to drown.

*NEVER leave a child unattended, even if they know how to swim. Kids love to play in the water but accidents can happen. Always keep uninterrupted supervision while child are by or in the water.
*It is always a good idea to teach your child to swim. In the beginning they will only learn to float on their backs, then as they get a little older they will learn how to do the “float and kick” to the side.
*ALWAYS wear life jacket when on a river, lake, and ocean.
*Teach them the dangers of water.
* It is best to install a gate around your pool that is at least 4 feet high.
*Take C.P.R. classes or at least consider having a chart that instructs you step by step the proper way to give C.P.R.
*Always check the temperature of the water for baths. Stay between (90-100 degrees)
* Place safety locks on your toilets.
* Do NOT leave toys in the pool. A child may see it and try to get to it.
*Do not leave stairs open and unsecured if you have an above ground pool.
*Designate ONE or TWO (depending on the amount of children) parent to watch the children. Have them wear a band or whistle of some kind. 
*Have your child wear flotation swimsuit
*Make sure to have them wear sunscreen every time they are outside for an extended period of time.

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S.I.D.S.-Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

S.I.D.S. is when an infant under one year of age has a sudden death. Most cases happen between 2 weeks and four months. Many people/doctors have many different feeling and views. This is one of those “touchy” subjects that in the end we really just don’t know right now. Many tests have been conducted and many conclusions have been made. Some say that S.I.D.S. is a preventable accident. Others say that it is an unpreventable disorder. Others say it is caused by gasses that your pillows, couches, beds, etc naturally give off over time. After the death of an infant, there will be an autopsy and an intensive investigation to determine the cause of death. You may be left with several unanswered questions and emotions after the investigation. It’s never easy to loose a baby much less to be left with no reason at all for it.
Either way both sides say that there are several things you can do to help prevent it.

*Keeping a smoke free environment for you baby. 
*Placing baby on his or her back, on a firm surface to sleep. 
*Use a dry, clean pacifier when putting your baby down to sleep.
*Try not to let her get to hot while she is sleeping
* Keep soft toys and loose bedding out of the crib
*Make sure baby always has fresh air. Think about keeping a small fan in her room.
*Make sure your baby’s crib and mattress is up do date on safety regulations.
*Make sure you have very good prenatal care
*Do NOT let your baby sleep with you
*Try to keep up with all your baby’s immunization shots.
*Some believe that breastfeeding reduces the risk
*Keep baby’s crib in your room
*Always place baby in his/her crib or basinet to sleep.
* Do not let them sleep on your bed.

*Avoid polyester or any thing with polyester filling.

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How to Treat a Nosebleed
By Rod Brouhard, you’re Guide to First Aid
Causes of Nosebleeds

Nosebleeds are common problems for kids and some adults, particularly in the winter months, when furnaces and fireplaces dry out the air in our homes and the membranes in our noses.

Generally, nosebleeds are caused by damage to the mucous membranes in the nostrils. In kids, the most common causes are from injury, either through digital trauma – picking their noses – or from an object, such as a ball, striking them in the nose.

Adults can get nosebleeds the same way as kids, but when an adult’s nose starts to bleed for apparently no reason, it could be an indicator of a dangerous medical condition, such as sudden high blood pressure. Be sure to tell your doctor if you are getting nosebleeds, especially without injury.

How to Treat Nosebleed: There are just two steps to treating a nosebleed.

First, lean forward. The tendency is to lean back with a nosebleed to keep the blood from dripping. Unfortunately, this can lead to swallowing blood, which will irritate the lining of the stomach and lead to vomiting.

Pinch the Nose: Second, pinch the sides of the nose against the hard inner cartilage with enough force to stop the bleeding. Make sure your fingers are on the hard part of the nose about halfway up; don’t completely close the nostrils. If you’re correctly pinching the nose, the victim should still be able to breath through his nose while you hold pressure.

Nosebleed Timing: Don’t let go for five minutes. It will take at least this long for the bleeding to stop completely. If you let go before the five minutes are up, pinch again and start the clock over.

Let go after five minutes of continuous pressure. If bleeding resumes, pinch the nose again for an additional ten minutes. If necessary, you can repeat this procedure one more time for ten more minutes.

If a nosebleed doesn’t stop after the second or third try, it’s time to see a doctor. If the victim complains of being weak, dizzy or light-headed, call 911 immediately.

Nosebleeds and Ice Packs: Placing ice on the bridge of the nose can help reduce the bleeding, but you must still hold pressure. Wrap the ice pack in cloth to avoid frostbite.

After a Nosebleed: After a nosebleed has been stopped, don’t let the victim blow his nose, even though it will feel stuffed up. This will blow out the clots that have formed and start the bleeding all over again.

Nosebleeds are particularly dangerous in people taking blood thinners, so make sure to call 911 for those victims.

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When your baby starts to climb, as you know, they fall a lot. To protect your baby from hitting his head on those sharp edges of the entertainment center or the side of your computer desk, is very easy.
*Get one or more, however much you will need in your home, water noodles. (The floating noodles you use in the pool). 
* Cut desired length to fit on edge of object.
* Cut down the side all the way, length wise.
* Place on front of entertainment center or other edges that your baby may hit his head on.
Water noodles are very cheap and can be found at almost any store.

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Tips for Selecting a Child Caregiver:
* What are the standards for hygiene and safety of the home/center (including secondhand smoke)
* Are the caregivers holding and talking to the infants
* How quickly do caregivers respond to infants’ cues and signals?
* Is the TV on
* Do the caregivers interact with love, patience and reassurance?
* Do the caregivers show excitement when children accomplish something new?

Questions to Ask:
* In caring for young infants, what do you feel is most important for you to provide?
* Are you a registered/licensed childcare provider?
* How often do you change diapers?
* How long do you let a baby cry before you pick her up?
* What are your opinions about spoiling and discipline?
* What do you expect form me as a parent when you care for my child?
* What are your thought on using educational videos and TV in infants and young children?
* Tell me about your daily routines and activities with children
* How often do you hold infants when you feed them?
* What are your thoughts about propping bottles, and at what age do you think babies should hold their own bottles? 
* How do you arrange for things such as diapers and formula? Do you receive state assistance with this? Are they included in your fees?
* What about sleeping arrangements? Will only my baby sleep on his sheets? How often is bedding washed?
*what do you do when a baby is sick or injured?
* Would it be okay for me to occasionally stop by to see what my baby’s day involves?
* could you give the phone numbers of 3-4 parents of babies you have cared for, who would be willing to talk to me?
* Are caregivers encouraged to get attached to the infants they care for?
* How much staff turn over do you have?
*Why do caregivers like working here?

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last updated 07/14/09